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Francis Turretin
1623–1687

      Francis Turretin was a Swiss-Italian Protestant theologian. Turretin is especially known as a zealous opponent of the theology of the Academy of Saumur (embodied by Moise Amyraut and called Amyraldianism), as an earnest defender of the Calvinistic orthodoxy represented by the Synod of Dort, and as one of the authors of the Helvetic Consensus, which defended the formulation of double predestination from the Synod of Dort and the verbal inspiration of the Bible.

      Turretin greatly influenced the Puritans, but until recently, he was a mostly forgotten Protestant scholastic from the annals of church history, though the rough English translation of his Institutes of Elenctic Theology is increasingly read by students of theology. John Gerstner called Turretin "the most precise theologian in the Calvinistic tradition."

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Biography A Brief Biography of the Real Francis Turretin
       The following biography was originally published in The Evangelical Guardian and Review, Vol. II, April 1819, No. 12: Sketch of the Life of the celebrated Francis Turrettine, Professor of Divinity at Geneva, who died Anno 1687. Translated from B. Pictet's Latin Oration, delivered before the Academy of Geneva, when he ascended the Theological C ...read
ArticleForensic Justification
      Is the word Justification always used in a forensic sense in this argument, or also in a moral and physical? The former we affirm, the latter we deny, against the Romanists. I. As in the chain of salvation Justification follows Vocation, Rom. 8:30, and is everywhere set forth as the primary effect of faith. The topic concerning Vocation and Fait ...read
ArticleHell and Eternal Death
      Seventh question: Hell and Eternal Death Is there a hell? And what are its punishments--whether only of loss or also of sense. We affirm the latter. I. The execution of the sentence of the Judge will follow its promulgation. This will be carried out with respect to the wicked by casting them down into hell, where they must be tormented for e ...read
ArticlePredestination of the Elect of God
      Ought predestination to be publicly taught and preached? We affirm. Some of the brethren of France in the time of Augustine started this question. Since, in his books against the Pelagians, he had inserted and inculcated many things concerning predestination, so as in this way to defend the truth against their impious doctrines, many were distur ...read
ArticleProof That the Church is Often Obscured
      Proof That the Church is Often Obscured: From the Condition of the Old Testament Church. Our opinion is confirmed by various reasons. The first is drawn from the condition of the church under the Old Testament, under which it is evident that she was not rarely obscured and destitute of all splendor (which can easily be demonstrated by her variou ...read
ArticleThe Holy Scriptures
      "FIRST QUESTION: THE WORD OF GOD -- Was a verbal revelation necessary? We affirm." "As the word of God is the sole principle of theology, so the question concerning its necessity deservedly comes before all things." Rejecting false appeals to reason and nature, Turretin says: "But the orthodox church has always believed far otherwise, maintainin ...read
ArticleThe Marks of a True Church
      Twelfth question; the marks of the church - Is the truth of doctrine which is held in any assembly, or its conformity with the word of God by the pure preaching and profession of the word, and the lawful administration and use of the sacraments, a mark of the true visible church? We affirm against the Romanists. I. After having treated of the n ...read
ArticleThe Salaries of Ministers
      TWENTY-EIGHTH question: the salaries OF ministers AND ecclesiastical goods: Is any salary due ministers of the church? We affirm against the Anabaptists. I. This question was agitated before this by the Anabaptists, who thought the gospel should be preached gratuitously; either by richer persons who have sufficient means for living, or even ...read
ArticleThe The State of Man Before the Fall and the Covenant of Nature
      IV. This double covenant is proposed to us in Scripture: Twofold of nature and of grace; of works and of faith; legal and covenant: of evangelical. The foundation of this distinction rests both on the different relation of God contracting (who can be considered now as Creator and Lord, then as Redeemer and Father) and on the diverse condition o ...read

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