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A Study of the Psalms: Part 2

By G.V. Wigram


      I print the Psalms as poetry; they are so in Hebrew. G.V.W.

      [Publisher's note: In Present Testimony the Psalms are rendered in full as the Authorised Version, here only the notes are reproduced.]

      First Book (Pss. 1 - 51) "The faithful are looked at as not yet driven out from Jerusalem; hence covenant mercies and the name of Jehovah are referred to."

      Observe: The first seven chapters in Acts -- as containing the Spirit's view, given in Jerusalem by such as Peter, James, and John, of Messiah's having been on earth and now on high -- cast much light on this book as historic and also as to its prophetic bearing on the Jews hereafter.

      Ps. 1:1-3 The perfect man; 4, 5 the ungodly ones; 6 Jehovah's judgment of both.

      v. 1 Ungodly or, Wicked.

      Ps. 2: 1-3 Challenge to the earth in rebellion against Jehovah and his Messiah; 4, 5 he that dwells in heaven laughs, Adonai derides, etc.; 6 he dwelling in heaven announces: I have set my king on Zion; 7-9 one replies in subjection, as to himself; Jehovah has said to me, Thou art my Son, etc.; and 10-12 sets himself as a fear and a shelter for man.

      NOTE. "The Son" (bar), ver. 12, is the same person as is called "Son" (ben), ver. 7.

      Ps. 3: -- A morning anticipation; 1, 2 many troubles, but 3 Jehovah is

      for me, 4, 5 he was, so, 6, 7 he will be; 8 deliverance is of him.

      Ps. 3   - 8. Faith in individuals (or in a company of such) here below -- a standard of walk having been raised before them (Ps. 1), and (Ps. 2) Messiah known as exalted, though earth-rejected -- is learning what its own place is amid failure and trials down here but in dependence upon Jehovah.

      Ps. 4: 1 Evening cry to Elohim, hope sustained by past favour; 2-5 warning; 6, 7 hope and joy in Jehovah; 8 repose for night.

      Ps. 5: 1-3 Cry to Jehovah, my King and my Elohim; 4-6 El, in way and character, against the evil-doer; 7-9 for me a shelter in mercy; 10 imprecation against the wicked; 11 for the faithful; 12 confidence in Jehovah,

      Ps. 6: 1-7 Cry for pity to Jehovah; 8 away you wicked! 9 Jehovah has heard me; 10 let my enemies pass.

      Ps. 7: -- Jehovah my Elohim, in thee do I trust; save me and him that is righteous from the enemy and the wicked.

      In an extreme of sorrow and evil around, conscious integrity looks up for the judgment appointed, and for Jehovah to vindicate himself before men against the wicked.

      Ps. 8: 1 Jehovah our Lord [Adonim], thy name in the earth, thy glory above the heavens thou hast set; 2 thy ways; 3-9 among thy works what is man [Enosh, man in weakness; not Adam nor Ish], or the son of Adam [man].

      NOTE. Ver. 9 gives but half of ver. 1.

      Ps. 9: 1, 2 I will praise Jehovah and sing the name of Gnelion; 3-20 my enemies fall before him maintaining my right: he is on the throne of judgment, all evil shall perish, O thou enemy; and, the poor and needy shall be delivered.

      Higgaion = Meditation.

      Ps. 9 and Ps. 10 give a view of the last days and of the faithful then, and show how judgments will become the deliverance of those that believe.

      Ps. 10: 1 Cry to Jehovah, 2 against the man of the earth; 3-11 his character, ways, doings; 12-18 appeal to Jehovah El Elohim, King, against the wicked man and the heathen, and for the poor.

      Ps. 11: 1-3 Trust in spite of the wicked in Jehovah, 4-7 who in heaven, on his throne, deals with man down here.

      Ps. 11 - 15. Words of faith, suited to those that believe in those days.

      Ps. 12: 1 Cry to Jehovah for the pious, 2 as before the double-hearted; 35 faith in him against the boaster; He will undertake; 6 His words are pure, and kept from that race and the wicked around.

      Ps. 13: 1, 2 Exercise in faith; 3-5 cry to Jehovah my Elohim as of one trusting to mercy; 6 hope.

      Ps. 14: 1 The fool, and the apostate people; 2-4 Jehovah looked down from heaven -- his estimate of them, and, 5, 6 faith's; 7 hope.

      Ps. 15: 1. Jehovah, who shall dwell with thee? 2-5 eleven excellencies, such as do these, shall never be moved.

      Ps. 16: 1 Preserve me, El, for I trust in thee. 2, 3 Thou hast said to Jehovah, "Thou art Adonai: my goodness extends not to thee;" [Thou hast said] to saints on earth and to the excellent, "In them, is all my delight;" 4, woe to those who seek after another; 5-11 what Jehovah is to me [the speaker].

      Ps. 16 -- Messiah first brought in as a man down here,   - pleads his trust, ver. 1; the end of it fulness of joy in heaven, ver. 11; and,

      Ps. 17 He pleads his righteousness, ver. 1; the end, ver. 15, satisfied when I awake with thy likeness.

      Ps. 17: 1, 2 Cry on the ground of "the right;" 3 his integrity was proven; 4 his use of the word; 5-7 dependence; 8-12 El his refuge from the wicked, etc,.; 13 faith in Jehovah; 14 estimate of man; 15 I Shall be satisfied when I awake with thy likeness.

      FROM Egypt till the display of the Royalty of Messiah -- the suffering Messiah alone the counsel and way of God. Compare Gen. 3: 15.

      Ps. 18: 1-3 Praise and trust; 4-35 depths of suffering; 36-48 his taking the kingdom; 49, 50 praise.

      The king: his retrospect of triumph over every difficulty of circumstance; whether as to the kingdom itself in principle and formation, or as to his getting up to the throne. 2 Sam. 22, but before he got to 2 Sam. 23, note how faith can use Elohim for victory over circumstances; but we have to learn that He is above us and uses circumstances for us, that he may use us for Himself.

      Ps. 19: -- Creation law;1-6 El's works in creation his witness; 7-14 Jehovah's law [query "doctrine," in the larger sense, for the word means that too] his, in saving.

      Ps. 19 - 21 -- Testimonies

      MESSIAH seen in His trouble.

      Ps. 20: 1-4 Faith's appeal to Jehovah Elohim of Jacob for One, in whom (v. 5) is salvation and headship, and 6-8 power, from Jehovah, over all -- the Messiah; 9 Save, Jehovah; let the king hear us.

      Ps. 21 -- The heavenly side, as Ps. 45 the side for earth: both about the king.

      Ps. 21: -- Answer to 20. (Part 1 addressed to Jehovah.) 1 - 7 joy of the faithful in what the king is, and (Part 2) 8-12 in what thou, the king, wilt do in judgment on men thy enemies; 13 our joy.

      Ps. 22: 1-21 humiliation; 22-31 the fruit of it in resurrection going on into the Millennial Kingdom.

      Note. -- On his lip, El, El, ver. 1 and 10; on the adversaries', Jehovah, ver. 8 and once on his (ver. 19): that in suffering; in glory Jehovah ver. 23 and 26 and 27 and 28, Adonai, ver. 30.

      Some would divide this Psalm in the middle of ver. 21, as though the stress was laid upon "thou hast heard me"; and not rather, upon "from the horns of the unicorns."

      Ps. 23: -- Messiah's Path as a man on earth; but also faith's in the last day, after atonement is known.

      ("Restore," ver. 3, means refresh, revive in spirit.)

      Ps. 24: -- Messiah (he is Jehovah) and a remnant entering glory hereafter.

      Ps. 25: 4-10 Full confession of sin by the faithful; faith's cry to Jehovah in thought of him and his ways and covenant; 1 conscious of integrity and trust in him, it acts in spite of, 2 enemies, 3 of transgressors; 7, 8, 11, 18, etc., transgression confessed; 22 Elohim to redeem Israel out of all his troubles.

      Ps. 25 - 39 thoughts and feelings of the faithful, relationship known.

      Ps. 26: 1 All is open to Jehovah, 6 righteous integrity is the pathway to the altar, 7, 8 to praise, and 9-12 to strength in hope.

      Ps. 27: 1 Fear excluded from the soul by joy in Jehovah as light, salvation, and strength; 2, 3 a past deliverance the basis of hope. He was desired and sought, and 4 his house as beautiful, 5 himself a refuge and 6 an exalter and joy; 7-9 appeal of faith in communion; 10, 11, in hope; 12 before enemies near 3 What if I had not had him! 14 Girding up.

      Ps. 28: 1, 2 Cry -- for manifest recognition, and 3-5 for exemption from the judgment on the wicked; 6-9 joy in Jehovah   as hearing and saving his people.

      Ps. 29: 1, 2 Call to praise Jehovah; 3-9 his voice working in providence, and 9 in his people in his temple, 10 on the flood King; 11 He is theirs.

      v. 1 'Ye mighty' Or, ye sons of Elim.

      Ps. 30: 1-3 I praise Jehovah for deliverance; 4, 5 saints to praise; 6-11 a deliverance, to the end that 12 I might praise him.

      Ps. 31: 1 - 3 Cry to Jehovah for help; 4 from the net; 5 into thine hand I commit my spirit, etc.; 6-13 conflict; 14-16 trust; 17-22 Jehovah for me and the faithful, against the wicked; 23, 24 comfort for his people.

      Ps. 32: -- (Part 1) 1, 2 forgiveness; (Part 2) 3,4 conflict till self is given up; 5 confession, 6 to Jehovah's praise. 7 Thou my joy and blesser. (Part 3) 8, 9 He teaches; 10, 11 faith's words.

      Ps. 33: 1 - 3 Be glad in Jehovah, ye upright and righteous; 4-7 his word, works, acts; 8, 9 earth and inhabitants to join;10 goim (peoples) and ammim (nations) fall before him; 11 his counsels stand; 12 blessed that (goi) people and that (amm) nation which he has chosen for himself; 13-15 from heaven he sees all men, etc.; 16-19 no deliverer but he; 20-22 on him we wait.

      Ps. 34: 1, 2 I joy in Jehovah to the joy of the humble; 3, call to join; (v. 4) I, (v. 5) they, (v. 6) this one, they called and (v. 7) were helped; 8, calls saints (v. 9) to fear and learn about him, 10-22, as being for the believer and against the wicked.

      Ps. 35: 1-3 Cry for help against adversaries; 3.1/2-8 for a word of comfort and for confusion on those causelessly against me; 9, 10 so shall I be glad; 11-16 false witnesses and requiting evil for good with hypocritical workers. 17, 18 Cry for help, and 19-26 righteous judgment, 27 and 28 let friends rejoice with me and praise.

      Ps. 36: 1-4 Faith's estimate of the transgression of the wicked, 5-9 of that which is in Jehovah; 10 prayer.

      v. 6 'Great mountains' or, the mountains of El.

      Ps. 37, Ps. 38, Ps. 39, Sore chastening under the dealings of Jehovah has to be passed through.

      Ps. 37: 1, 2 Heading. Faith knows the way of peace in an evil day, 3-40 Jehovah's knowing his own and his hatred of evil are rest and blessing to those that walk near him. Them will he uphold.

      Ps. 38: 1-8 Groans under the flood of judgment from Jehovah; 9, 10 his inward parts open to Adonai; 11-22 hear and help or I am lost.

      Ps. 39: 1-6 Writhes but seeks instruction from Jehovah; 7-13 seeks aid from Adonai and Jehovah.

      Ps. 40: 1 I waited on Jehovah. He gave me to praise, to (v. 3) his honour among men; 4 blessed he that trusts and keeps himself from evil, 5 wonderful the works and thoughts of Jehovah toward us; 6-10 Messiah's work and mark, 11-13 prayers, 14, 15 imprecation on enemies; 16 Jehovah's people prayed for, 17 poor, yet he is my stay.

      The foundation: Messiah has undertaken to do the will of God; He goes patiently through it.

      Ps. 41 -- The poor man's place; 1-3 He that acts according to the mind and way Jehovah to the weak, Jehovah will do likewise to him; 4 Cry for mercy for sin; 5-9 the adversary's taunts, etc. 10 Mercy! that I may requite; 11, 12 joy for help from Jehovah. 13 Praise.

      The blessedness of him who understands the poor and needy (sheep).

      Second Book (Ps. 42 - 72.) The faithful are seen as driven out; and, unless viewed as in their future, God, not Jehovah (his covenant name) is referred to. (Comp. Ps. 53 and Ps. 14).

      Peter's position with a remnant, both outcast for the Lord's sake and having to solace themselves with the future, may help us here. 2 Peter.

      Ps. 42: 1, Yearns for Elohim amid 3 taunters, 4 anguish, 5-7, 8, 11 hope in him; 6 in the land of Jordan and the Hermonites, and amid depths of judgment and taunts 9, 10.

      Ps. 43: 1 Cry to Elohim for judgment against a nation not in grace (the Jews), and the wicked man; 2-4 Thou and thy places are my all, 5 I hope in thee.

      Ps. 44: 1-3 All our blessing was from thee, 4-8 my King, Elohim, I take thee so to be to me; 9-16 but thou hast cast us off and givest us up; 17-22 yet are we faithful; 23-26 appeal for help.

      Ps. 44 - 48. Extend from their first appeal to Elohim, to their being again in Zion, and Ps. 49 is a meditation thereon.

      Ps. 45: 1 Faith tastes, through the Spirit, and 2-9 estimates the King now present; 10-16 address to the queen; 17 Who is it speaks here?

      Messiah is in the scene as king for the earth.

      Ps. 46: 1-3 Elohim our present help; 4, 5 a river gladdens the city of Elohim, the holy place, etc.; 6, 7 enemies destroyed; 8, 9 what Jehovah has done. 10, 11 Be still! he is for us.

      Ps. 47: 1-4 The land (or earth) called to own (truth of Psalms 45, 46); 5-9 Elohim come in, the shields of the earth are his [the governmental power on earth has been transferred from the Gentiles, with a beast's heart, to Israel].

      Ps. 48: 1-3 The faithful are in Zion (through), 4-8 a deliverance just seen; 9-14 joyous exhortation to consistency therewith.

      Ps. 49: 1-4 A musing thereupon; 5-14 the folly of the men of this world; 15 but Elohim redeems from the grave; 16-20 exhortations based thereon.

      NOTE. Ver. 4 "a parable" -- "a dark saying."

      Ps. 50: - A judgment as to the living, in the land; 1-4 apprehended by faith; 5, 6 announced by the Judge; 7-15 Elohim's address in court; 16-21 to the wicked; 22 exhortation to such; 23 to his own.

      This arraignment of Israel contains the grand principles of Elohim's judgments towards them.

      Ps. 51: 1-4 The arraigned one's confession when broken down; 5-17 pleading for a cure in his desperate case; 18, 19 Elohim working in Zion will be pleased with his people and their ways.

      "Israel's confession of sin, looking for mercy and cleansing, and owning it in its root in nature and its results in the rejection of Messiah."

      Ps. 52: 1-5 Faith's judgment of him who counts his lips his own, while El's goodness continues; 6, 7 the righteous shall judge him; 8 faith trusts in mercy and has 9 joy and patience in Elohim.

      Faith's challenge 1st of the tyrant.

      Ps. 52 - 67 -- The faithfuls' exercises of soul, in which Israel becomes the blessing of the nations.

      Ps. 53: 1 The fool's desire and doings; 2 Elohim seeks seekers; 3, 4 his thoughts of that generation; 5 faith sees Elohim for thee and against all such; 6 its hope.

      And 2ndly of his faction.

      Ps. 54: 1, 2 Cry to Elohim, 3 against oppressors who know him not; 47 trust in and devotedness to him who has saved.

      A believer then and there.

      Ps. 55: 1, 2 Cry to Elohim, against 3 the enemy; 4-8 anguish, 9-11 the enemy's voice and goings on in the city, 12-14 treachery of the traitor; 15 imprecation. 16-18 My resource, and 19-21 their judge; 22 cast all on him; 23 he will destroy them. I trust.

      By one strong in faith, in that day.

      Ps. 56: 1-3 Against the all-destroying enemy -- man, faith trusts Elohim, 4 and his word; 5-7 the doings of man; 8-11 grieved I trust Elohim and his word. 12, 13 I will praise; delivered.

      v. 2 'Most High' Or, Thou maroom "exalted one"; not Gnelion.

      Ps. 57: 1, 2 Cry to and trust and hope in Elohim, 3-6 for deliverance from man and his doings. 7-11 praise.

      Ps. 58: 1 Faith's challenge to a congregated mass. 2-5 its wickedness; 6-9 judgment invoked; 10, 11 the righteous shall rejoice.

      Ps. 59: 1-4; Deliver me from my enemies; 5 wake against the heathen and the wicked; 6, 7 their ways; 8-10 my trust Jehovah, Elohim. 11-15 regulated judgment invoked on them; 16, 17 Praise -- Elohim is for me.

      Ps. 60: 1 - 3 Bowing under Elohim; 4 he has given them a token; 5 Cry for deliverance; 6-8 joyful anticipation of faith; 9-12 he will help.

      Ps. 61: 1-5 Cry to and faith in Elohim; 6, 7 Thou wilt bless the king, 8 so shall I praise for ever.

      Ps. 62: 1, 2 Faith and hope in Elohim; 3, 4 warns the wicked; 5-7 as 1, 2; 8-10 exhorts, 11 power belongs to Elohim, 12 also mercy is of Adonai. He will render to every man according to his work.

      Ps. 63: 1-8 Yearns after Elohim El, in a dry and thirsty land, for the sake of what he is; 9, 10 my enemies shall fall; 11 the king shall rejoice, the liar be silenced.

      Ps. 64: 1-6 Appeals to Elohim and counts on him, amid the very wicked; 7, 8 he shall judge them, 9 his judgment be owned; 10 the righteous shall be glad in Jehovah.

      Ps. 65: 1 Praise to thee Elohim is silent in Zion; 2 all flesh shall come to thee; sins prevail against me; 4 blessed whom thou choosest; 5 judgment at the door; 6-13 thy power in creation and providence.

      v. 1 'waiteth' Heb. "is silent."

      Ps. 66: 1-4 All lands to praise Elohim, and own his power to bow down his enemies; 5-7 his power works; 8-12 his dealings with us; 13-15 I will pay my vows in his house; 16-20 my experience, for the fearer of Elohim.

      Ps. 67: 1 May Elohim shine out on us that, 2 in the land and among the Gentiles his way may be known; 3-5 praise from all invoked; 6,7 that earth may yield her increase, and all the earth fear him.

      Ps. 68: 1, 2 Elohim invoked to stay the wicked; 3-6 the righteous to praise him, and his ways; 7-10, 11 and 12 his doings; 13 hope, affliction will turn to glory; 14-16 his hill among the hills; 17 his chariots; 18 salvation's basis; 19-23 the issue salvation and judgment; 24-27 the goings of my king in the sanctuary, 28-30, 31, 32-34 results in blessing; 35 worship.

      Messiah ascended and exalted, is known to faith as the security of blessing.

      Ps. 69: 1-5 Appeal to Elohim in sorrows described here (compare ver. 3 with Ps. 22: 1; 4 is from the wicked outside, and 5 sorrow's cause within the range of my responsibility, comp. Psalm 40); 6-12 sorrows from man; 13-18 appeal to Jehovah Elohim, 18.1/2-21 under sorrow from enemies; 22-28 retributive justice invoked; 29-31 poor, I count on Elohim; 32, 33 the humble shall be glad 5 34-36 all Joy! he will save Zion and those that love him shall dwell there.

      v. 6 In Hebrew written Jehovah but read Elohim, see also Ps. 71: 5.

      "The full depth of Messiah's sufferings in connection with the Remnant." "The cross and judgment; as Psalm 22 the cross and mercy."

      Ps. 70: 1 Cry for help; 2, 3 for retributive vengeance on enemies 4 for favour to those that seek thee; 5 I am poor! help!

      From amid deep sufferings

      Ps. 71: 1 - 5 Faith in Jehovah and hope, amid the wicked; 6 from infancy, through youth (17), in the infirmity of old age (9, 18), be with me, before (10, 11) enemies; 12 appeal; 13 retributive imprecation; 14-24 hope -- motive thereunto, that the ways of Jehovah intertwine the lives of his people here below.

      Ver. 5 and ver. 16. In Hebrew written Jehovah, but read Elohim; see also Ps. 73: 28.

      Onward until their strength is all but gone.

      Ps. 72: 1-17 Faith's prayer for the king, and expectations as to the king's son; 18, 19 Praise.

      Messiah recognised as Son of David.

      NOTE -- Vers. 6-8 "sea to sea" is of wider scope than 1-5 "thy people"; 9-11 again, gives the tribute paid by all kings; 12-14 his doings characteristic of his ways; 15-17 what he is made from on high.

      1 Third Book (Ps. 73 - 89) Messiah as occupied with the faithful in Israel, as lying beyond Judah; and not only, as heretofore, with the 2.1/2 tribes.

      The general expectation of Israel referred to by James "To the twelve tribes scattered abroad, greeting" (James 1: 1); and by Paul "Now I stand and am judged for the hope of the promise made of God unto our fathers; unto which promise our twelve tribes, instantly serving [God] day and night, hope to come," (Acts 26: 6, 7), -- is not without interest, here, as to the position of those who are looked at in this book.

      Ps. 73: 1 Elohim good to Israel, to those of a clean heart; 2-12 effects of my envy at the foolish and their prosperity; 13-15 discouragement therefrom and evil; till 16-20 I went into the sanctuary of El and saw their end; 21-26 then I judged self and trusted; 27, 28, resume.

      v. 28 In Hebrew written Jehovah but read Elohim, see also Ps. 109: 21.

      Ps. 74: 1-3 Appeal to Elohim for his own redeemed ones and sanctuary; for 4-8 an infidel faction is in power, 9-23 to the deep trial of our faith.

      Faith in presence of the triumph of the wicked.

      NOTE. Vers. 12, 16, 18, 19, 20, 22, my king of old, creation, blasphemy, thy poor, covenant, thy cause.

      Ps. 75: 1 Our thanks to Elohim for his proved nearness; 2 when I (Messiah) take the congregation I will judge rightly; 3 my power; 4-8 warning to the wicked. 9, 10 Resume of what I will do.

      Ps. 76: 1-3 Judah and Israel; Salem and Zion now seen to be under Elohim. 4 He the trust and hope, through 5-10 all opposition below; 11 worship the Judge from heaven (8, 9), 12 cutter off of princes and kings.

      Ps. 77: 1-10 My exercise in retrospect of past appeal to Elohim; weakness, but I cling to 10.1/2-20 the duration of thy power, works, wonders of old, doings, in the sanctuary, in the redemption of thy people, Jacob and Joseph, by Moses and Aaron.

      Ps. 78: 1, 2 Appeal to my people in a similitude in dark sayings of old; 3 we heard it, our fathers told us, 4 we will tell their children of Jehovah, and 5-8 his doings for Israel that they might live to El. Yet they failed him (9) in battle, 12 in Egypt, 13 in the Exodus, 15-30 in the wilderness as to water, manna, flesh; 31 judgment upon them for unbelief; 36, 37 their hypocrisy, 40 they provoked, 42 they forgat Egypt smitten and 52 themselves brought forth; 54 in the land, 55 heathen cast out and they planted, etc. all failed in them and he judged them. But if, 67-73 Joseph and Ephraim were refused -- Judah, Zion and David were chosen.

      An historic enigma. He that can blend 2 Sam. 22 and 23, an absolute promise and covenant secured to man in the Messiah -- alone can read it. Israel blessed under the law fails; -- its blessing secured by electing love under Messiah.

      Ps. 79: 1-4 Thy inheritance occupied by the goim (heathen), temple defiled, city in heaps, thy servants slain, a scorn to all around. 5-13 How long! judgment invoked on the goim; favour, for thy name's sake on thy people, and so, Praise.

      Ps. 80 -- The vine, historically, desolate. 1 Titles, 2, 3 Save! 4-7 Nothing but discipline! 8-16 its history; 17-19 the man of thy right hand is alone root of blessing for us.

      Does piety seek here to replace historic Israel in its former blessing (ver. 1 and 2 compared with Ps. 78: 67) and faith then comes in in ver. 17?

      v. 10 Cedars of El.

      Ps. 81: 1-5 We invoke to praise Elohim upon the former basis of blessing; 6-10 Jehovah recites his dealings with them; 11-16 they would not hear, and were judged.

      Ps. 82: 1 Elohim judges in the assembly of El and among the elohim (comp. ver. 6 and John 10: 34, 35, and supra); 2 his judgment of them; and 3, 4 of their duty; 5-7 their state and that of the earth (qy., land); 8 he must judge to possess it and the goim.

      Ps. 83: - Faith and the Spirit, amid a general confederacy (ver. 5-8) against Israel (4) and the houses* of Elohim (12), counts (9-17) on Elohim, El (1) against his enemies (2), the wicked (3), that (18) Jehovah may be known as alone Gnelion on the earth.

      *Rather read "pleasant-places" than "houses."

      Ps. 84: 1-3 Faith and the Spirit long after the dwelling-places, etc., of Jehovah of hosts, my King and my Elohim [Qy. -- Should it not be v. 2 "El, (yea the sparrow hath found an house, and the swallow a nest for herself, where she may lay her young,") even, thine altars, etc.; 4-7 the blessings en route to Zion. 8-9 Elohim of Jacob, look on the face of thy Messiah;10-12 I long after him who is the blessing of those that trust in him.

      Ps. 85: 1-3 Brought to the land and pardoned, 4-7 me want our souls restored; 8-13 according to the fulness of blessing of his salvation.

      Ps. 86: 1-7 Weak, and amid trouble, I call on thee; 8-10 all nations must come and worship; 11-13 teach thou me, my deliverer; 14 the proud are against me, 15-17 yet I hope in thyself.

      Ps. 87: 1-3 Jehovah loves Zion, which he has founded; 4-6 Faith reckons its citizenship an honour, so does Jehovah 7 praise around, and my heart within concurs.

      None like Zion.

      Ps. 88: 1 Cry to Jehovah Elohim of my salvation; 2 sense of exclusion; 3 of inward trouble; 4 and of outward; 5-7 thou against me; 8 thy hand against me, and so 9-18 faintness and affliction and desolateness.

      Ps. 89: 1, Joy in mercies of Jehovah and 2 in mercy; 3 and 4 (Jehovah speaks) "I have made a covenant with mine elect one; my oath is to my servant David: thy seed will I establish," etc.; 5-14 (faith in the remnant replies) joy in him and his works; 15-18 thine a blessed people; 19-37 the covenant, its unalterableness and certainty in thee; 38-45 but experience and fact seem to say thou hast abhorred Messiah and made void the covenant and all seems lost. 46 How long Jehovah, have thine enemies reproached the footsteps of thy Messiah. 52 Praise.

      *Fourth Book (Ps. 90 - 106). In connection with the bringing of the Only-begotten into the world.

      Ps. 90: 1, 2 A meditation on Adonai always our dwelling place; from before all worlds, from everlasting to everlasting, El; 3-6 turning off and turning back man, 7-9 thy wrath for our sins, 10 the nothingness of our days! 12-17 Prayer.

      For any among the twelve tribes, near before Psalm 91.

      Does 'them' (ver. 5) refer to "children of men" (ver. 3), or to "years" (ver. 4). Ver. 11, "even according to thy fear, thy wrath" qy., "the fear we have of thee, so thy wrath appears," or, "as terror now so wrath to come."

      Ps. 91: 1 Oracular enigma, "The dweller, in the secret of Gnelion, shall abide under the shadow of Shaddai." 2 Messiah replies, "I will say to Jehovah, My refuge, and my rock; my Elohim, in him will I trust 3-13 The Spirit through a seer, or a remnant. 14-16 Shaddai speaks.

      Ver. 9 (compare with ver. 2) said to Messiah "for that thou [sayest] to Jehovah, 'My refuge,' thou hast set Gnelion [as] thy defence."

      Ps. 101 and 102 and 103 are in continuation of this Psalm.

      Ps. 92:   1-3 Praise to Jehovah Gnelion, 4, 5 through grace and Jehovah's working; 6-15 unknown to the fool, who grows up for destruction, while the righteous grows up for Jehovah.

      Ver. 8 'most high' maroom, 'exalted,' not Gnelion.

      Ps. 93: 1 Jehovah reigns in glory: the world is established, 2 thy throne established of old -- thou from everlasting, 3 the floods have risen and been heard, 4 Jehovah is mightier than they, 5 his testimonies are sure: holiness becomes his house.

      Ps. 94: 1 El of revenge [?requitals], Jehovah El of requitals, show thyself, 2 judge of the land, rewarder of the proud; 3-7 how long endure the wicked against thee and thine; 8-11 appeal to the wicked, 12-15 comfort for the upright, 16-23 Jehovah our Elohim is the deliverer and the judge.

      Ps. 95: 1-3 Praise and worship invoked to Jehovah El, great as a king above all elohim, 4-7 possessor and creator of heaven and earth our Elohim and we the sheep of his hand. 7-11 Appeal to those still not practically thus, to remember those who provoked him in the wilderness.

      Ps. 96: 1, 2 All called to rejoice and worship Jehovah; 3 and 10, tell his glory among the heathen, 13 he comes to judge the earth.

      Ps. 97: 1-6 Jehovah comes in all the glory of the Adon of the whole earth; 7 idolatry judged, 8 Zion and Judah rejoice; 9 his glory; 10-12 exhortation to Nazariteship.

      Ps. 98: 1-3 Jehovah's victory and salvation before the heathen and world, for Israel, 4-9 to be owned before all as Jehovah the king and joyed in; he comes as Judge.

      Ps. 99: 1-4 Jehovah reigns, sitting between the cherubim, in Zion; the king; 5-9 call to exalt him, historic tokens.

      Ps. 100: 1 Shout to Jehovah, all the land! 2 Serve with joy; 3 relationship to him, 4 duties, 5 his character.

      Ver. 1, for "all ye lands" Hebrew has "all the land."

      Ps. 101: 1 Mercy and judgment shall be my song; 2 Jehovah, come to me, in my house; I will walk with a perfect heart, 3-8 evil banished, the faithful upheld in the land and city.

      The principles of rule.

      [Read this also, after Ps. 91 and then Ps. 102 and Ps. 103.]

      Ps. 102: 1-8 Cry to Jehovah in trouble, weakness, among enemies; 9,10 under wrath; 11 I pass, but 12 thou, Jehovah, endurest. l3-16 Zion's mercies and hope are in thee, 17-22 this is known to faith on the earth; 23, 24 the weakened one's speech; 25-28 oracular reply thereto.

      If Zion's mercies are in Jehovah and known to faith on earth to be there -- "what of Him whose strength was weakened and days shortened, and he taken away in the midst thereof -- though Jehovah endures for ever?" The answer is "He is of old, the Creator, the unchanging one, etc., and the children of His servants shall continue, and their seed be established for ever."

      Ps. 103: 1-5 My soul, bless Jehovah -- forget not his benefits; 6, 7 his ways, 8-10 character, 11-13 mercy measured to us, 14-22 presence of him (17) and his glory.

      Grace, forgiveness and healing reaches the faithful.

      Ps. 103. Compare this as uttered by David, under law, and as the song for the Millennial saints on earth; and notice the contrast as to magnitude between Ps. 103: 11 and Heb. 10 and Rev. 4, 5 to us now, and between Ps. 103: 13 and our sonship Eph. 1 and 2.

      Ps. 103: Redemption, Ps. 104: Creation, Ps. 105: Patriarchs, Ps. 106: The Nation.

      Ps. 104: 1 The glory of Jehovah my Elohim, 2-4 in creating and using the heavens, 5-24 the earth, 25-30 the sea etc.; all things made, upheld, sustained, nurtured by him and used; 31, 32 his glorious majesty endures and his pleasure in his works; 33, 34 I will praise him, 35 let sinners be consumed out of the earth and the wicked be no more.

      Ps. 105: 1-4 Call to thank Jehovah and extol him before the peoples, 5-15 remember his works, ye seed of Abraham, to whom unconditional promise and covenant, everlasting for Israel, and oath to Isaac individually, etc. were given; 17 Joseph, 26 Moses and Aaron, 27 and all that he did in E gypt, 37 in the Exodus, 40 in the wilderness, 44 in the land.

      Acts 7 throws light on Psalm 105 and Psalm106. Psalm 105 gives the line of covenant (ver. 8) and promise (ver. 42) to Abraham running through the individuals chosen of Him as heads -- mercy and grace distinguishing; judgment going before and on and with them. 106 gives the works of the mass -- judged (in contrast with Acts 7) to get them into blessing.

      The good side. He using individuals.

      Ps. 106: 1, 2 Praise and thank Jehovah, for he is good and his mercy for ever; his praises unutterable; 3 blessed are the obedient; 4 individual appeal for favour and salvation, and 5 privilege; 6 we have sinned with our fathers, 7-43 historic confession as to the Exodus, the wilderness and in the land, 44-46 his yearning mercy; 47 save us from among the goim, that we may thank and triumph in thee. 48 Praise.

      The bad side. The mass rebelling against Him.

      Book 5.

      Fifth Book (Ps. 107 - 150) Working up to the full blessing, but not in it.

      Ps. 107: 1-3 Thank Jehovah, for he is good and his mercy for ever, ye redeemed of him from all lands, from the east, west, north, and south. 4-9a and 10-16b and 17-22c and 23-32d four different classes. His acting upon lands, for sin 33, 34 for mercy 35-38; 39-41 his after dealings; 42, 43 the moral of it all -- the loving-kindness of Jehovah known to the righteous and the wise in the end (to the silence of iniquity), in changes upon the twelve tribes and their places of abode.

      a Wandering, need, simple fallen humanity; b prisoners, pressure, daring wilfulness; c fools (in plenty), death, folly; d seafarers, at wits' end, human wisdom and energy, seem to be the four characteristic marks.

      Ps. 108: 1 Purpose to praise, 2, 3 attendant circumstances; 4 why? Mercy; 5,6 may he exalt himself that his beloved may be delivered; 79 answer and triumph; 10, 11 new needs how met;12, 13 faith in him.

      Faith seeks to triumph in Jehovah among the peoples and the nations. 7-9 the answer.

      Ps. 109: 1 Cry to Elohim of my praise; 2-5 and 16 from the slandering hater; 6-15 and 17-19 and 28, 29 imprecation on him, and 20 on all my enemies. 21-27 Hear me in my weakness and reproach; 30 and 31 I will praise, the poor is cared for.

      Ver. 21. In Hebrew written Jehovah, but read Elohim; see also 140: 8.

      The wicked one -- Judas -- apostate Israel -- Antichrist.

      Ps. 110: 1-4 Faith's report of Jehovah's thoughts and intentions about my Adon; seated at the right hand on high, he will send him out of Zion over all enemies; his people made willing -- himself a priest after the order of Melchizedek; 5-7 what he Adonai at thy right hand, will do.

      Ps. 111: 1 Hallelu-Jah. I will praise Jehovah, wholly, in the assembly of the upright and congregation, 2 his works, and 3 work, his righteousness, 4-9 gifts, covenant, power over the heathen, also redemption; 10 his fear is the beginning of wisdom, etc.

      Ps. 112: 1-9 Hallelu-Jah. Blessednesses of him that fears Jehovah; 10 grief and melting away of the wicked.

      Ps. 113: 1-3 5 Hallelu-Jah, servants of Jehovah praise his name, from now onward for ever: over the whole earth; 4 his glory above all the goim and the heavens; 5-9 who is like him; high, he stoops down and cares for the poor and needy and the barren.

      Ps. 114: 7, 8 Earth called to tremble before Adon, the Eloah of Jacob, who turned rock into pool of water and flint to fountain; 1, 2 whose displays when Israel came out of Egypt, as owned by him, is given 3-6.

      Ps. 115: 1 Not to us, O Jehovah, but to thee glory, -- mercy and truth are thine; 2 why should the heathen say, Where now their Elohim? 3 He is in heaven and has done his pleasure; 4-7 the idols! 8 and their makers! 9-11 Israel, house of Aaron, fearers of Jehovah, trust in him, 12, 13 he thinks of us and will bless you, 14, 15 you are the blessed of him the Creator; 16, 17 larger still; 18 we will ever bless Jah.

      Ps. 116: 1-5 I love Jehovah, he has heard me 6-11 he delivered my soul from death; 12-17 I own the debt, 18, 19 before his people and in the midst of the courts of his house in Jerusalem.

      Ps. 117: 1 All the goim and all nations praise Jehovah. 2 His mercy is great to us and his truth for ever.

      Ps. 118: 1 - 4 Let Israel, the house of Aaron, all that fear Jehovah say now, his mercy is for ever. 5 I called in distress; Jah   answered me, and 6-9 Jehovah will care for me; 10-12 all the   goim were against me, in his name will I destroy them: 13 Thou hast thrust sore at me, but he helped: 14 Jah is my strength and joy and song, and 15, 16 of the righteous too. 17 Not death but   to declare his works is mine; 18 chastened but not given over to   death: 19 open to me the gates of righteousness -- I will praise Jah. Answer, 20, 22, 24 this is the gate of Jehovah, -- the stone; 23 wonderful! 24 it is the day; 25 save and prosper! 26   Messiah owned; the blessing from the house of Jehovah; 27 he   owned as the giver of light and self sacrifice; 28 I own him. 29 (as 1) Give thanks to Jehovah for he is good: for his mercy for ever.

      Ps. 119: The written Word the only recognised index to divine thoughts -- but subjection to Jehovah must be acted upon in order to use it aright.

      Their hearts tasting and feeling after Him.

      I give what may seem the distinctive thought dominant in each eight verses. But I fear, though it is not a first, or a second, attempt on my part, that it is not a success.

      Each line, in each of the eight verses, begins with a letter of the Alphabet -- the letters taken in succession as A, B, C.

      1-8 Integrity and self-surrender to Jehovah's word the pathway into the obedience of faith.

      9-16 Cleansing power of the word for a young man's ways.

      17-24 Thou wilt surely stand by thy word;

      25-32 for the soul needs quickening and enlargement,

      33-40 and teaching and inclining and quickening, in order for the word to be established in it;

      41-48 and then mercies-so as to be strong from it.

      49-56 The truster in the word has comfort.

      57-64 As being such, Jehovah is my portion.

      65-72 Retrospect. Dealt with of Jehovah, according to the word in affliction, I am profited.

      73-80 My Maker! thy word guides me to understand thee.

      81-88 Thy word fails not, though I may; I wait for it, amid depths and trial.

      89-96 For ever, Jehovah, thy word is settled in heaven, --   thy law keeps the soul down here;

      97-104 how blessedly, here, does it humble and exalt me

      105-112 it is light to the energetic life it has given;

      113-120 and forms the soul in awe of thee, amid the wicked around.

      121-128 It teaches to lean on thee, in the sense of this Nazariteship and of thy thoughts.

      129-136 Admiration of the word, in result leading still to dependence.

      137-144 The righteous character of Jehovah and his word.

      145-152. In the depths, confidence of faith is in the word known of old to be for ever.

      153-160 In affliction and persecution, it stays me, that thy word is from the beginning and for ever.

      161-168 (2, 3, 1, 2 ) increasing preciousness of the word from its suitableness to circumstances.

      169-176 It suffices as a stay even in the discovery of inward depravity. It is my all.

      The above Psalm seems to be a sort of song illustrative of the properties of the word -- in grace -- in an evil world -- to those that have wandered but are returning to Jehovah.

      Ps. 120: 1, 2 In distress I cried to Jehovah, Save me from lying lips and a deceitful tongue; 3,4 its judgment; 5-7 lament.

      Ps. 120 - 134, -- Fifteen songs of degrees, giving the process and way of their being brought back in peace into the presence of Jehovah.

      Ps. 121: 1, 2 I look up; my help is from Jehovah, maker of heaven and earth. 3,-8 (oracular voice) Jehovah is thy keeper -- keeper of Israel, etc.

      Ps. 122: 1, 2 Heart in Jerusalem; 3-5 its praises; 6 pray for its peace and prosper; 7, 8 I pray for and bless it! 9 for the sake of the house of Jehovah our Elohim.

      Ps. 123: 1 I look up, 2 as a servant -- for mercy; 3, 4 still among the wicked.

      Ps. 124: 1-5 Jehovah has been Israel's saviour from man, or all had been lost. 6-8 Blessed be he, maker of heaven and of earth.

      Ps. 125: 1 They that trust in Jehovah are as mount Zion. 2 He is around his people (amm, Israel) for ever, 3 to save them from wickedness; 4, 6 to reward man according to his doings. Peace on Israel.

      Ps. 126: 1, 2 Zion's captivity turned -- we joyed, the goim owned it; 3 our owning of it 4 prayer; 5, 6 sorrow owned as his way to bless.

      Ps. 127: 1 House built and city kept in vain without Jehovah; so 2 as to food, 3-5 so as to children, -- their praise is from Jehovah.

      Ps. 128: 1. Blessed is he that f ears Jehovah and walks in his ways; 2-6 blessed in time and on earth -- as to Zion, Jerusalem and Israel.

      Ps. 129: 1-3 Depths of sorrows from man have been mine; 4 Jehovah is righteous, he has cut asunder the cords of the wicked; 5-8 imprecation on all haters of Zion.

      Ps. 130: 1 Out of the depths I cried to Jehovah, 2 hear; 3, 4 sin! but there is forgiveness with thee that thou mayest be feared; 5 I wait and hope, 6 intensely; 7 let Israel hope in him and his redemption; 8 he will redeem.

      Ps. 131: 1, 2 I am lowly; 3 let Israel hope in Jehovah henceforth and for ever.

      Ps. 132: 1 Jehovah, remember David and his afflictions, 2-5 his purpose to find a place for Jehovah, 6 we heard of it in Ephratah and found it; 7-9 we will go into his tabernacles; worship at his footstool. Rise Jehovah to thy rest and the ark of thy strength, -- thy priests, thy saints; 10 David and the Messiah; 11-18 Jehovah's oath to David -- and rich promises.

      Ps. 133: 1 Brotherly unity, 2 its beauty, 3 its blessedness.

      Ps. 134: 1, 2 Bless Jehovah ye who stand by night in his house; 3 be thou blessed out of Zion by him, Maker of heaven and earth.

      Ps. 135: 1 Hallelu-Jah. Praise Jehovah's name, ye his servants, 2 in the house, in the courts of the house -- 3 as good 4 chooser for himself of Jacob and Israel; as 5 great, 6 doer everywhere of his will, 7 in the air, 8, 9 in judging Egypt, 10-12 and great nations (goim); 13 enduring in name and memorial, 14 his own people; 15-18 the vanity of idols and their 19, 20 house of Israel, of Aaron, of Levi, ye fearers of Jehovah bless him, 21 out of Zion, dweller in Jerusalem, may he be praised.

      Jehovah in contrast with idols.

      Ps. 136: 1 Thanks to Jehovah, 2 and to Elohim, for his mercy for ever, 3 to the Lord of lords, 4 doer of wonders, 5-9 wise and powerful in creation, 10-15 and in redemption out of Egypt, 16 through the wilderness; 17-22 into the land; 23, 24 raiser up of the weak, 25 sustainer, 26 the El of heaven for his mercy for ever.

      Ps. 137: 1-4 By the rivers of Babylon we wept for Zion, 5, 6 Jerusalem our chief joy; 7 Jehovah, remember Edom's desire to rase it; 8, 9 happy the instrument of Jehovah's judgment on Babylon.

      Ps. 138: 1, 2 I will praise thee, before the gods, toward thy temple for kindness and truth and thy word, magnified above all   thy name; 3 I was heard; 4, 5 all kings shall praise thee, 6 Jehovah is high, yet he respects the lowly and looks at the proud afar of; 7 he delivers me and will perfect all for me.

      Ps. 139: 1 Thou hast searched and known me, 2-12 the process in detail, 13-16 how wondrous my frame! 17, 18 precious thy thoughts! 19, 20 thou wilt slay the wicked, 21, 22 I hate them; 23, 24 search me, try me, lead me.

      Man put into God's presence, unable to stand before or to avoid him -- good and evil known -- the soul cast on him.

      Ps. 140: 1 Save me, from the evil man, etc., 2-5 described; 6, 7 thou art my hearer and shelter; 8-11 imprecation; 12, 13 Jehovah is for the poor and the upright.

      *In Hebrew written Jehovah, but read Elohim; see also Ps. 141: 8.

      Ps. 141: 1, 2 Hear, Jehovah, my cry, 3 keep my lips, 4 my heart from the wicked; 5, 6 let the righteous smite me, I pray for them in their trouble; 7 we are broken to pieces, 8 I trust in thee, 9 keep me from the wicked, 10 judge them whilst I escape.

      Ver. 8. In Hebrew written Jehovah, but read Elohim.

      Ps. 142: 1-5 Retrospect; when all failed me I looked to Jehovah,6, 7 and I count upon him.

      Ps. 143: 1 Hear and answer me, 2 bring me not into judgment, 3-11 amid sorrows, needs, fears, my heart is on thee, who art about my path; 12 imprecation.

      Ps. 144: 1, 2 Blessed be Jehovah my strength and refuge; 3, 4 the littleness of man! 5-8 Come down and save me from the stranger and the wicked. 9,10 I will sing a new song, he is the deliverer of David from the sword; 11 rid me, etc., that, 12-14 we may have earthly blessings, 15 and blessedness.

      Ps. 145: 1, 2 I will extol thee, O Elohim, King; I will bless thee for ever; 3 the excellency of Jehovah; 4 thy works and acts, one generation to another shall set forth, 5 thy majesty and wonders I, 6, 7, they, etc.; 8, 9, Jehovah's character, 10 his works and saints, 11-13 his kingdom. 14 He is the upholder of the weak, the restorer, 15, 16 provider for all; 17-20 righteous in all his ways, he hears and answers prayer; preserves those that love him, but destroys the wicked. 21 My mouth and all flesh to praise him.

      "A dialogue between Messiah and those blessed for the Millennial earth." (If so, vers. 3, 8 and 9, 14, 17-20, may be announcements through Messiah, and the responses from the mouths of his people in that day).

      Ps. 146 1 Praise ye Jah. My soul praise Jehovah; 2 Yea, while I have being; 3, 4 caution against trust in man; 5-10 happy he whose help and hope is in the Elohim of Jacob. His excellencies. He will reign for ever.

      Description of the character in which he will deal with Israel.

      Ps. 147: 1 Praise ye Jah our Elohim; it is pleasant; 2 Jehovah builds Jerusalem, gathers the outcasts of Israel, 3 heals the broken hearted and their wounds, 1 counts the stars; 5 great is our Adonim; 6 Jehovah lifts up the meek, casts down the wicked, 7 praise him; 8, 9 his work in providence, 10, 11 taking pleasure (not in brute force but) in those that fear him; 12-14 Jerusalem and Zion, praise him for what he hath done for thee; 15-18 his acts abroad, 19, 20 those distinctive to Jacob and Israel, -- to whom alone he has shown his word, statutes and judgments.

      Praise for blessings distinctive of Israel.

      Ps. 148: 1, 2 Praise ye Jah. Praise Jehovah from and in the heavens, all ye various companies of his; 3-6 Praise him, ye sun, etc., 7-10 all things from the earth, 11 powers on earth, 12 all men; 13 the alone excellent, also 14 the exalter of Israel.

      Ps. 149: 1 Praise ye Jah. Praise Jehovah in the congregation of Israel; 2 let Israel rejoice, in his maker, Zion in their king, 3 with dance and music, 4 for Jehovah takes pleasure in them; 5, 6 let them joy; 6.1/2-9 invested with retributive power against the heathen. Praise ye Jah.

      Ps. 150: 1, Praise ye Jah and El in his sanctuary; 2 what for, 3-5 how, 6 who to praise Jehovah. Hallelu-Jah.

      Everything that has breath to praise.

      End of the Book of psalms.

      POSTSCRIPT.

      JUST as the printing was commenced, I was asked by a friend to review a book "On the use of Jehovah and Elohim in the Pentateuch," etc. It is one of the many pitiful expressions of the ignorant stupidity of German neology, now so plentiful. My present article is the best answer I could have given, containing, as it does, the explanation of the real meaning of the two names, Elohim and Jehovah, and their connections with different displays of divine glory; and, at the same time, putting into the hands of those that fear God the means of examining for themselves the use of these two terms in the Book of the Psalms, and so of judging of the folly which hides itself under the display of knowledge about ELOHISTIC and JEHOVISTIC Scriptures.

      The effect of restoring the original names and titles sometimes is to make a failure in the translation apparent; e.g., Book 3, No. 17, (Ps. 89: 8), "O Jehovah Elohim of hosts, who is a strong Jah like unto thee?" "A strong Jah," I trow, would never have dropped from a Hebrew's pen.

      In conclusion, until the difference of the titles -- "Son of God" and "Son of Man" -- is learnt, and that too of the heavenly glory from the earthly glory of the Lord is seen, the Psalms never will be understood.

      The Incarnation, Life, Service, rejection by man, crucifixion, death, burial and resurrection of the blessed Jesus, all took place in time and on earth. But they were the, expressions of counsels long before the earth existed, and not for earth only and a people on it, but for heaven also, and God who is there. And if the land is to be married to Jehovah, so likewise is the Church to be the Bride, the Lamb's wife. Israel and the earthly saints will be subjects to the King in righteousness upon the earth; the Church and the heavenly saints are members of that body of which He is the glorified head; they to have all blessings in time on the earth, under Him, we to have all spiritual blessings in heavenly places in Him.

      Present Testimony. VOL. II. -- New Series. Commenced -- Aug. 24, 1869. No. 1.

Back to G.V. Wigram index.

See Also:
   A Study of the Psalms: Part 1
   A Study of the Psalms: Part 2

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